Dawah of The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) brief

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
أول ما أوحى إليه ربه تبارك وتعالى أن يقرأ باسم ربه الذي خلق وذلك أول نبوته فأمره أن يقرأ في نفسه ولم يأمره إذ ذاك بتبليغ ، ثم أنزل عليه( يا أيها المدثر قم فأنذر ) المدثر فنبأه بقوله { اقرأ } ، وأرسله بـ{ يا أيها المدثر} .
ثم أمره أن ينذر عشيرته الأقربين ، ثم أنذر قومه ، ثم أنذر من حولهم من العرب ، ثم أنذر العرب قاطبة ، ثم أنذر العالمين ، فأقام بضع عشرة سنة بعد نبوته ينذر بالدعوة بغير قتال ولا جزية ويؤمر بالكف والصبر والصفح .
ثم أُذن له في الهجرة ، وأذن له في القتال .
ثم أمره أن يقاتل مَن قاتله ويكف عمن اعتزله ولم يقاتله .
ثم أمره بقتال المشركين حتى يكون الدين كله له .
ثم كان الكفار معه بعد الأمر بالجهاد ثلاثة أقسام : أهل صلح وهدنة ، وأهل حرب ، وأهل ذمة .” زاد المعاد ” ( 3 / 159 ) .
“The first thing which his Lord revealed to him was to read in the name of his Lord who had created. That was the beginning of his Prophethood, where Allaah commanded him to recite to himself but He did not yet command him to convey that. Then He revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning:
‘O you (Muhammad) enveloped in garments! Arise and warn!’ [al-Muddaththir 74:1-2]
So he became a Prophet with the word ‘Iqra (Read!) and he became a Messenger with the words, ‘O you (Muhammad) enveloped in garments…’ Then Allaah commanded him to warn his closest kinsmen, then to warn his people, then to warn the Arabs around them, then to warn all the Arabs, then to warn all of mankind. He continued to call them for over ten years from the beginning of his Prophethood, without fighting or imposing the jizyah; he was commanded to refrain, to be patient and to be forbearing.
Then permission was given to him to migrate, and permission was given to him to fight.
Then he was commanded to fight those who fought him, and to refrain from fighting those who left him alone and did not fight him.
Then Allaah commanded him to fight the mushrikeen so that the religion would all be for Allaah.
After jihad was enjoined upon him, the kaafirs then fell into three categories: those with whom there was a truce or peace treaty; those with whom he was at war; and those who lived under the rule and protection of the Islamic state.” (Zaad al-Ma’aad, 3/159)

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