And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.

Allah informs us of a very important matter in surah al-dhaariyaat when He says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.
[al-Qur’an 51:56]

In part of his commentary on this ayah,

Imam al-Shinqitee wrote the following lucid clarification:
قال مقيده عفا الله عنه وغفر له : التحقيق – إن شاء الله – في معنى هذه الآية الكريمة إلا ليعبدون ، أي إلا لآمرهم بعبادتي وأبتليهم أي أختبرهم بالتكاليف ، ثم أجازيهم على أعمالهم ، إن خيرا فخير وإن شرا فشر ، وإنما قلنا إن هذا هو التحقيق في معنى الآية ، لأنه تدل عليه آيات محكمات من كتاب الله ، فقد صرح تعالى في آيات من كتابه أنه خلقهم ليبتليهم أيهم أحسن عملا ، وأنه خلقهم ليجزيهم بأعمالهم . ـ

The writer [i.e. Sheikh Shinqitee] – may Allah pardon and forgive him – says: The true meaning – inshaAllaah – of this noble ayah “except to worship me” i.e. except that I may command them with My worship and test them, meaning examine them with burdens, and then recompense them according to their deeds; if they are good then good [will be their reward] and if they are bad then bad [will be their reward]. And we only say that this is the true meaning of this ayah because it is supported by the definitive ayaat of the Book of Allah, so He has made it clear in the ayaat of His Book that He created them in order to test which of them is best in deed, and that He created them in order to reward them according to their actions.

قال تعالى في أول سورة هود : وهو الذي خلق السماوات والأرض في ستة أيام وكان عرشه على الماء [ 11 \ 7 ] ، ثم بين الحكمة في ذلك فقال : ليبلوكم أيكم أحسن عملا ولئن قلت إنكم مبعوثون من بعد الموت ليقولن الذين كفروا إن هذا إلا سحر مبين [ 11 \ 7 ] .

Allah says in the beginning of surah Hud, “And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne had been upon water” – and then He clarified the wisdom in that by saying, “in order that He might test you as to which of you is best in deed. But if you say, ‘Indeed, you are resurrected after death,” those who disbelieve will surely say, “This is not but obvious magic.’” [11:7]

– . [وقال تعالى في أول سورة الملك : الذي خلق الموت والحياة ليبلوكم أيكم أحسن عملا [ 67 \ 2 .
And He says in the beginning of surah al-Mulk, “ [He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed” [67:2].

وقال تعالى في أول سورة الكهف : إنا جعلنا ما على الأرض زينة لها لنبلوهم أيهم أحسن عملا [ 18 \ 7 ] .ـ
And He says in the beginning of surah al-Kahf, “Indeed, We have made that which is on the earth adornment for it that We may test them [as to] which of them is best in deed.” [18:7].

فتصريحه – جل وعلا – في هذه الآيات المذكورة بأن حكمة خلقه للخلق ، هي ابتلاؤهم أيهم أحسن عملا ، يفسر قوله : ليعبدون . وخير ما يفسر به القرآن – القرآن

So His clarification in these aforementioned ayaat is that wisdom of His creating the creation is to test them as to which of them is best in deed. So this explains His statement, “to worship me.” And the best thing to use in explaining the Qur’an is the Qur’an.

اعلم أن الآيات الدالة على حكمة خلق الله للسماوات والأرض وأهلهما وما بينهما قد يظن غير المتأمل أن بينهما اختلافا ، والواقع خلاف ذلك ; لأن كلام الله لا يخالف بعضه بعضا ، وإيضاح ذلك أن الله تبارك وتعالى ذكر في بعض الآيات أن حكمة خلقه للسماوات والأرض هي إعلام خلقه بأنه قادر على كل شيء ، وأنه محيط بكل شيء علما ، وذلك في قوله تعالى في آخر الطلاق : الله الذي خلق سبع سماوات ومن الأرض مثلهن يتنزل الأمر بينهن لتعلموا أن الله على كل شيء قدير وأن الله قد أحاط بكل شيء علما [ 65 \ 12 ] . ـ

Know that these ayaat demonstrate the wisdom of Allah’s creation of the heavens and the earth and their inhabitants and what is in between them. And those who are not reflective might think that there is a contradiction between them, but the reality is contrary to that, because the Speech of Allah does not disagree with itself. And the explanation of this is that Allah mentioned in some ayaat that the wisdom of His creation the heavens and the earth is to make His creation know that He is all-powerful over everything, and that He is all-encompassing of everything in terms of His knowledge. And that comes in His statement in the end of surah al-Talaaq, “It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them. [His] command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge.” [65:12]

وذكر في مواضع كثيرة من كتابه أنه خلق الخلق ليبين للناس كونه هو المعبود وحده ، كقوله تعالى : وإلهكم إله واحد لا إله إلا هو الرحمن الرحيم [ 2 \ 163 ] ، ثم أقام البرهان على أنه إله واحد بقوله بعده : إن في خلق السماوات والأرض واختلاف الليل والنهار إلى قوله : لآيات لقوم يعقلون [ 2 \ 164 ] ، ولما قال : ياأيها الناس اعبدوا ربكم [ 2 \ 21 ] ، بين أن خلقهم برهان على أنه المعبود وحده بقوله بعده : الذي خلقكم والذين من قبلكم الآية [ 2 \ 21 ] . ـ

And He mentioned in many places in His Book that He created the creation in order to clearly show to mankind His existence as the only One worthy of worship, such as His statement, “And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful,” [2:163] and then He established a definitive proof that He is the only god by His following statement, “Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason.” [2:164]. And also when He said, “O mankind, worship your Lord“, clarifying that His creating them is a definitive proof that He is only One worthy of worship by His statement after that, “who created you and those before you” [2:21].

والاستدلال على أن المعبود واحد بكونه هو الخالق – كثير جدا في القرآن ، وقد أوضحنا الآيات الدالة عليه في أول سورة الفرقان في الكلام على قوله تعالى : وخلق كل شيء فقدره تقديرا واتخذوا من دونه آلهة لا يخلقون شيئا الآية [ 25 \ 2 – 3 ] ، وفي سورة الرعد في الكلام على قوله تعالى : أم جعلوا لله شركاء خلقوا كخلقه فتشابه الخلق عليهم قل الله خالق كل شيء الآية [ 13 \ 16 ] ، وفي غير ذلك من المواضع . ـ

The proof that He is the only One worthy of worship is by virtue of Him being the Creator – a fact which is found abundantly in the Qur’an – and He clarified for us in definitive ayaat in the beginning of surah al-Furqaan in His statement, “He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in dominion and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination. But they have taken besides Him gods which create nothing, while they are created, and possess not for themselves any harm or benefit and possess not [power to cause] death or life or resurrection.” [25:2-3]. And in surah al-Ra’d in His statement, “Or have they attributed to Allah partners who created like His creation so that the creation [of each] seemed similar to them? Say, ‘Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Prevailing,’” [13:16] and in other places as well.

وذكر في بعض الآيات أنه خلق السماوات والأرض ليبتلي الناس ، وذلك في قوله : وهو الذي خلق السماوات والأرض في ستة أيام وكان عرشه على الماء ليبلوكم أيكم أحسن عملا [ 11 \ 7 ] . ـ

And He mentioned in some ayaat that He created the heavens and the earth in order to test mankind. And that comes in His statement, “And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne had been upon water – that He might test you as to which of you is best in deed.” [11:7]

وذكر في بعض الآيات أنه خلقهم ليجزيهم بأعمالهم وذلك في قوله : إنه يبدأ الخلق ثم يعيده ليجزي الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات بالقسط الآية [ 10 \ 4 ] . ـ

And He mentioned in some ayaat that He created them in order to reward them for their deeds, such as in His statement, “Indeed, He begins the [process of] creation and then repeats it that He may reward those who have believed and done righteous deeds, in justice. But those who disbelieved will have a drink of scalding water and a painful punishment for what they used to deny” [10:4].

وذكر في آية الذاريات هذه أنه ما خلق الجن والإنس إلا ليعبدوه ، فقد يظن غير العالم أن بين هذه الآيات اختلافا مع أنها لا اختلاف بينها ، لأن الحكم المذكور فيها كلها راجع إلى شيء واحد ، وهو معرفة الله وطاعته ومعرفة وعده ووعيده ، فقوله : لتعلموا أن الله على كل شيء قدير [ 65 \ 12 ] ، وقوله : اعبدوا ربكم الذي خلقكم [ 2 \ 21 ] راجع إلى شيء واحد هو العلم بالله ، لأن من عرف الله أطاعه ووحده

And He mentioned in this ayah of [surah] al-dhaariyaat that He did not create the Jinn and the humans except in order to worship Him, so an unlearned person might think that there is a conflict between these ayaat while there is [in fact] not conflict between them. For the reasons mentioned here are all going back to one single thing, and that is the recognition of Allah and obedience to Him and knowing His promises and threats. So His statement, “In order that you may know that Allah is – over all things – powerful” [65:12], and His statement, “Worship your Lord who created you” [2:21] are pointing back to one single thing which is knowledge of Allah, because whoever knows Allah, he will obey Him and single Him out for worship.

وهذا العلم يعلمهم الله إياه ويرسل لهم الرسل بمقتضاه ليهلك من هلك عن بينة ، ويحيا من حي عن بينة ، فالتكليف بعد العلم ، والجزاء بعد التكليف ، فظهر بهذا اتفاق الآيات لأن الجزاء لا بد له من تكليف ، وهو الابتلاء المذكور في الآيات والتكليف لا بد له من علم ، ولذا دل بعض الآيات على أن حكمة الخلق للمخلوقات هي العلم بالخالق ، ودل بعضها على أنها الابتلاء ، ودل بعضها على أنها الجزاء ، وكل ذلك حق لا اختلاف فيه ، وبعضه مرتب على بعض . ـ

And Allah taught them this knowledge and sent a messenger to them whereby He might destroy those who would be destroyed after a clear evidence and He might give life to those to who were to live after a clear evidence [c.f. 8:42]. So the commission of fulfilling Allah’s commands comes after knowledge, and reward comes after the commission, so that is made clear by these concurring ayaat because the recompense is a must for those who have been commissioned. And these aforementioned tests in these ayaat and the commission are a must for those who have knowledge. And some of these ayaat show that the wisdom of creating the created beings is knowing the Creator, and some of these ayaat show that the wisdom is being tested, and some of them show that it is recompense, and all of these are true with no discrepancy among them, and each of them is in order with the others.

وقد بينا معنى إلا ليعبدون في كتابنا ” دفع إيهام الاضطراب عن آيات الكتاب ” في سورة هود في الكلام على قوله تعالى : ولذلك خلقهم [ 11 \ 119 ] ، وبينا هناك أن الإرادة المدلول عليها باللام في قوله : ولذلك خلقهم أي ولأجل الاختلاف إلى شقي وسعيد خلقهم ، وفي قوله : ولقد ذرأنا لجهنم كثيرا من الجن والإنس [ 7 \ 179 ] إرادة كونية قدرية ، وأن الإرادة المدلول عليها باللام في قوله : إلا ليعبدون ، إرادة دينية شرعية .

And we have clarified the meaning of “except to worship Me” in our book Repelling the Illusion of Disorder concerning the Qur’anic Verses in surah al-Hud during the discussion about Allah’s statement, “and for that We created them” [11:119], and we clarified that intended meaning of the letter lam there in His statement, “and for that We created them” – meaning: for the purpose of them differing between being ultimately sorrowful and ultimately joyful We created them. And in His statement, “And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind” [7:179] then intended meaning is in terms of its existence and divine decree, while the intended meaning of the letter lam in His statement, “to worship me” is in terms of the divine legislation of the deen.

وبينا هناك أيضا الأحاديث الدالة على أن الله خلق الخلق منقسما إلى شقي وسعيد ، وأنه كتب ذلك وقدره قبل أن يخلقهم ، وقال تعالى : هو الذي خلقكم فمنكم كافر ومنكم مؤمن [ 64 \ 2 ] ، : وقال : فريق في الجنة وفريق في السعير [ 42 \ 7 ] . ـ

And also we clarified there the ahaadeeth which demonstrated that Allah created the creation divided into those ultimately sorrowful and those ultimately joyful, and that He wrote that and divinely decreed it before He created them. And He says, “It is He who created you, and among you is the disbeliever, and among you is the believer” [64:2]. And He says, “A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze.” [42:7].

والحاصل : أن الله دعا جميع الناس على ألسنة رسله إلى الإيمان به وعبادته وحده وأمرهم بذلك ، وأمره بذلك مستلزم للإرادة الدينية الشرعية ، ثم إن الله – جل وعلا – يهدي من يشاء منهم ويضل من يشاء بإرادته الكونية القدرية فيصيرون إلى ما سبق به العلم من شقاوة وسعادة ، وبهذا تعلم وجه الجمع بين قوله : ولقد ذرأنا لجهنم كثيرا من الجن والإنس . وقوله : ولذلك خلقهم ، وبين قوله : وما خلقت الجن والإنس إلا ليعبدون ، وإنما ذكرنا أن الإرادة قد تكون دينية شرعية ، وهي ملازمة للأمر والرضا ، وقد تكون كونية قدرية وليست ملازمة لهما ، لأن الله يأمر الجميع بالأفعال المرادة منهم دينا ، ويريد ذلك كونا وقدرا من بعضهم دون بعض ، كما قال تعالى : وما أرسلنا من رسول إلا ليطاع بإذن الله [ 4 \ 64 ] ، [ ص: 449 ] فقوله : إلا ليطاع أي : فيما جاء به من عندنا ، لأنه مطلوب مراد من المكلفين شرعا ودينا ، وقوله : بإذن الله يدل على أنه لا يقع من ذلك إلا ما أراده الله كونا وقدرا ، والله – جل وعلا – يقول : والله يدعو إلى دار السلام ويهدي من يشاء إلى صراط مستقيم [ 10 \ 25 ] ، والنبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – يقول : ” كل ميسر لما خلق له ” ، والعلم عند الله تعالى . ـ

In conclusion: Verily Allah has called all of mankind – via the tongues of His messengers – to eemaan in Him and to His worship alone and He has commanded them with that, and His command to do that is by definition the divinely legislated will. Then Allah guided whom He willed of them and misguided whom He willed according to His divine decree, so they would become what had preceded for them of His knowledge of ultimate sorrow and joy. So by this you know the synchronicity between the statement, “And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind” and His statement, “and for that We created them” and His statement, “And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.” And we only mentioned that the will may be in terms of divine legislation – which is connected to His commands and pleasure – and it may be in terms of divine decree – which is not connected to those things. For Allah has command all [mankind] with actions which are desired for them in terms of the deen, and He wants that to occur in terms of the divine decree for some of them to the exclusion of others, as He says, “And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by the permission of Allah” [4:64]. So His statement, “except to be obeyed” means regarding what he came with from Me, because that is the intended and sought-after objective for those who are commissioned with fulfilling Allah’s divinely legislated commands. And His statement, “by the permission of Allah” indicates that that nothing of that will occur except what Allah wants in terms of His divine decree. And Allah says, “And Allah invites to the Home of Peace and guides whom He wills to a straight path” [10:25], and the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Everyone is facilitated in what has been created for him.” And the knowledge is with Allah.

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 7/445-450]

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s