There is no doubt that each problem has causes which helped in forming and complicating it, and knowing these causes is a must for who[ever] wants to find the cure.
The causes for this problem differ from one country to the other, from one group to the other, and from one time to the other.Yet, there are some causes which may be in common between many of those individuals and groups in many different times and places, and among them are :
1. Ignorance of the Book of Allah, Exalted be He, the Sunnah of His Prophet— صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ –, the rulings and principles of Takfeer and the Salafs’ talk about it, and the purposes of the Sharee’ah; this ignorance might be complete for some and partial for others due to the wrong figurative interpretation and Ijtihaad of whom his aptitude is still incomplete, because such person would not do something that contain evils if his aptitude were complete.
Would the Muslims be afflicted with that which afflicted them after the time of the companions if they did not ignore many or few of the legal principles and forget some of which they have been reminded with?
2. Abstaining from the methodology of the Salaf in relation to the tribulation of ruling with that which Allah has not revealed in many Muslim countries; and abstaining from their methodology in changing the visible atrocities.
And it goes without saying that the tribulation of ruling with other than that Allah has revealed has became blindly widespread and is among the causes of the Takfeer tribulation, because it is not permissible to rule with other than that Allah has revealed in relation to the Tahleel and Tahreem and permission and banning regarding the blood, properties, honor, or any other public or private matters.
In this respect, Allah, the Exalted, says:
أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
“Do they then seek the judgment of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgment than Allah for a people who have firm Faith.” (al-Maa’idah: 50);
He also says in a different verse:
أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاء شَرَعُوا لَهُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّهُ
“Or have they partners with Allah (false gods), who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed?” (ash-Shooraa: 21);
and He also says:
إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ أَمَرَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ
وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
“The command (or the judgment) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him (i.e. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.” (Yoosuf: 40); there are plenty of verses which support this principle.
3. Ignorance of universal laws of at-Tamkeen in the land (i.e. the ways by which people become masters of the land) and that this can only be thru patience and endurance of the disbelievers’ harm, so how come that we do not persevere patience over the Muslims’ harm?
4. Defaming the senior scholars, disparaging them, and accusing them to be scholars of the government; and in the best conditions, they are accused to be ignorant about the true state of affairs, superficial, misguided by the rulers, or scholars of menstruation and confinement.
As for the general fataawaa on the gloomy new happenings, then they are not trustworthy references in that…and many other false accusations.
However, there is no doubt that the scholars are the heirs of the prophets—though they are not infallible except in the firmly established consensus—;
they are the resorts at the times of new happenings, and Allah, Exalted be He, commanded us to refer to them when He, the Exalted, says:
فََاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
“So, ask the people charged with authority (i.e. the scholars) when you know not” (an-Nahl: 43);
He, the Exalted, also says:
وَإِذَا جَاءهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ الأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُواْ بِهِ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ
وَإِلَى أُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ
“When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people), if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly)” (an-Nisaa: 83).
In this respect, the Prophet— صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم —said:
مَنْ يُرِد الله به خيرًا؛ يُفقهه في الدين
“If Allah wants to do a favor to somebody, He bestows on him the gift of understanding (the Qur’an and Sunnah)”; and the like of the proofs which show the high standing of the scholars and the necessity of referring to them, especially in relation to the new happenings, and Allah knows best.
And so, when the scholars criticize these youngsters for their excessiveness in Takfeer—because they do not observe the legal restrictions in this regard—or for their acts of bombing and assassination, those will say: Do not listen to those ones, because they are scholars of the government, cowards, or that they cannot say the Truth.
5. The misunderstanding of the trustworthy reference for issuing Fatwaa. In this respect, some of them refer to the eloquent orator, because his screaming, which almost pulls out one’s heart from his chest, shows his sincerity and truthfulness as they understand.
However, such sincerity and truthfulness does not entail trustworthy, qualified reference for issuing fatwa upon the new happenings.
Others consider the versed poet to be a reference, or become deceived by the looks of the ascetic worshipper or the person who was jailed and released for several times.
And so, such youngsters start to think that such people are the trustworthy ones regarding the critical matters, and they refer to them although the Prophet— صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم —said:
إن من أشراط الساعة: التماس العلم عند الأصاغر
“among the signs of the imminence of the Hour is seeking knowledge from the junior people”; and so, whether this meant the people of innovation or those who have no experience in the Religion, nor do they have any experience in the true state of affairs, and nor do they have any lessons from history—those youngsters must learn a lesson from that and be careful of what leads them to their destruction. At the same time, the Muslims must entrust the job to those who are qualified enough to accomplish it.
6. And it is fair enough to say that among these causes is the harsh treatment and arbitrary repression done by some security departments—in many countries—for everyone who has a relation with the call to Allah, the Exalted, even if it was an indirect relation, and whether the person was close or away from such ideology.
Rather, the innocent—in some countries—may face harsher treatment than that the takfeeree caller receives because of the wrong, misguiding information, which is far from truth, which the authorities receive from ignorant or malicious persons.
Thus, such repression may produce excessiveness among those who were moderate before and increase it among the excessive ones; it also closes any door to Truth among the youngsters although many youngsters will defend the Truth—by the will of Allah—if they know it, but this arbitrary repressive style did not come up with the hopeful fruit, but rather it implanted revenge and confronting repression with what is harsher than it among the youngsters; it also implants such deviant ideology in the minds of the youngsters.
One may have a look at those who were released from prisons, because their condition is a great proof on that; many moderate became excessive, and many excessive became more excessive, except for those whom Allah bestowed His mercy upon!!
And what shows the failure of such a style is that some countries ceased it and resorted to opening the doors of discussion with specialists in the field, but this new approach did not come until that harsh one was tried and proved its failure, and Allah knows best.
Yet, warning against such harsh style does not mean warning against firmness or being strong against the tribulations and their people, but all of this should be limited to the sharee’ah of Allah but not to the inclinations and ill desires.
7. The haste, fanaticism, harsh treatment, and the feeling that those youngsters are doing what Allah has commanded—compared to the others who are negligent in their opinions–; all of this causes the young to turn to the bloody confrontation and what is below it.
8. The wrong revolutionary, enthusiastic charging of the youngsters done by the callers and theorists of those ideologies, as some of those callers may have noticed the love that these youngsters have for the religion, their concern for the sacred limits of Allah, and their desire for Paradise and what makes one closest to it among the deeds or says; there, they mentioned to them the hadeeths which show the rank of the Jihaad and martyrdom in the Cause of Allah.
Well, this is good in itself, as Jihaad is at the very top of this religion, and it is continuous up to the Day of Judgment—according to one’s ability–; however, the mistake that they did is when they convinced the youngsters that rulers and their assistants in the Muslim countries are the first ones who deserve to be fought against; and they applied the following verse in their case:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُم مِّنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَلِيَجِدُواْ فِيكُمْ غِلْظَةً
“O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you” (at-Tawbah: 123).