By Dr. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdir-Rahman Al-Khumayyis
(Taken From Sharh ‘Aqeedah Tahaawiyah Musayyar)
Imam Abu Ja’far At-Tahaawi states:
هذا ذكر بيان عقيدة أهل السنة والجماعة على مذهب فقهاء الملة أبي حنيفة النعمان بن ثابت الكوفي وأبي يوسف يعقوب بن إبراهيم الأنصاري وأبي عبدالله محمد بن الحسن الشيباني رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين وما يعتقدون من أصول الدين ويدينون به رب العالمين
This is a presentation of the beliefs of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah, according to the school of the jurists of this religion, Abu Hanifa An-Nu’man ibn Thabit Al-Kufi, Abu Yusuf Ya’qub ibn Ibrahim Al-Ansari and Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani, may Allah be pleased with them all, and what they believe regarding the fundamentals of the religion and their faith in the Lord of all the worlds.
نَقُولُ فِي تَوْحِيدِ اللَّهِ مُعْتَقِدِينَ بِتَوْفِيقِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاحِدٌ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ
1. We say with regard to Allah’s Oneness, hoping for His Tawfeeq, Indeed Allah is One with no associates.
Indeed, Allah, Most High is One in all things (meaning), One in His Essence, One in His Actions, One in His Names and Attributes, One in His Worthiness of servitude. He has no associates in anything from amongst these qualities, so He has no partners in His Creation or His Command. As Allah, Most High says,
Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment [7:54]
And His Statement,
Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? [35:3]
So He has no associates in benefiting or harming, in causing death or causing life, and no partners in things other than that from these types of actions and administering in this universe.
And similarly, He has no partners in His Names and His Attributes, in His Divinity and in His being worthy of servitude and worship.
And the Tawheed of the servant does not become complete until every one of these categories is purified from shirk and he is opposed to shirk in all of the categories of Tawheed that are obligatory upon him.
So he (the servant) makes Tawheed of Allah in His Lordship as well as His Actions and he makes Tawheed of Allah in His Names and Attributes and he does not describe Creation with descriptions that belong solely to Allah, The Creator.
He (the servant) makes Tawheed of Allah in His Divinity and he does not divert any worship from the categories of ‘Ibaadah to other than Allah.
As Allah says,
You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).[1:5]
And Allah’s Statement,
And I (Allah) only created the Jinn and mankind to worship Me [51:56]
2. And there is nothing at all similar to Him
This is from the fundamentals of Tawheed that is to be believed in concerning Allah Most High. As He States,
There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer [42:11]
So He does not resemble anything from His Creation nor does anything in His Creation resemble Him, neither in His Essence nor His Actions. And nothing resembles Him either in His Names and Attributes or in His Status.
وَلَا شَيْءَ يُعْجِزُهُ
3. And there is nothing that can prevent or hinder Him (from doing what He pleases)
That is to say that Allah Most High is capable of doing whatever He pleases.
As Allah states,
Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, “Be!” and it is! [36:82]
So there is no difficulty upon Him in anything He wills and there is no hindering Him in anything.
And Allah states,
Allah is not such that anything in the heavens or in the earth escapes Him. Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Omnipotent. [35:44].
This is from the perfection of Allah’s Might, Glorified and Exalted. What Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. And this is what is discussed concerning the perfection of His Lordship.
وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُهُ
4. And there is no deity other than Him
And this is the Kalimah (phrase) of Tawheed and it is that which all of the Messengers called to.
As Allah says,
And verily , We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger proclaiming: ‘Worship Allah and avoid Taaghoot (all false deities).’ [16:36]
And the meaning of it is that nothing has the right of ‘Ibaadah except Allah and this is because He is The Creator, The Provider, The King, The Administrator of Affairs so it is His right to be singled out in all forms of worship without equal. And whatever is worshipped other than He is indeed the worship of falsehood.
As Allah has stated,
That is because Allah He is the Truth and what they (the polytheists) invoke besides Him, it is Baatil (falsehood) [22:62]
This is because they do not possess anything from the Commandment or the Execution of Affairs nor do they have any thing to do with directing the affairs of creation. And this statement includes in it the negation of worship of anything other than Allah as well as holding others equal to Him. And this is establishing firm the worship of Allah alone and the worship of anything other than Allah is disbelief. This is Tawheed of Divinity or Tawheed of Worship.
Indeed, Allah Most High is One in His Essence, and His Names and His Attributes, and one in His being worthy of Servitude. Nothing is similar to Him from amongst His creation and He is capable of Allah things. Nothing hinders Him in anything He wills and there is no difficulty upon Him in anything. There is nothing worthy of the right of worship other than Him, Glorified and Exalted.
1. What is the meaning of making Tawheed of Allah, Most High?
2. What are the three categories of Tawheed?
3. What are the three categories of Shirk?
4. What is the Kalimah(phrase) that all of the Messengers called to?
قَدِيمٌ بِلَا ابْتِدَاءٍ دَائِمٌ بِلَا انْتِهَاءٍ
5. He (Allah) is Qadeem (ancient) with no beginning and will always exist with no ending.
Al-Qadeem is not one of the Names of Allah, Most High. The reason for using this word is to convey the meaning that nothing preceded Allah and that He exists always without an ending. And this is the meaning of the words of Allah, Most High;
He is Al-Awwal – The First (nothing is before Him) and Al- Aakhir – The Last (nothing is after Him) [57:3].
So Al-Awwal (the First) means that there was nothing before him and Al-Aakhir (the Last) means that there is nothing that comes after Him. And indeed, this was explained by the Prophet. Sallallahu’alayhi wa sallam.
6. He does not perish nor become extinct:
As Allah, Most High says;
Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever. [55:26,27]
and the Words of the Most High;
Everything will perish save His Face. [28:88]
For Indeed, Allah causes His creation to perish but He does not perish and He causes the extinction of His creatures but He does not become extinct. This, of course, is because He is Al-Aakhir (The Last), existing after everything, Glorified and Exalted.
More to come insha allah